example of absolute advantage

In other words, it requires fewer resources to make a final good or service. ★ Example of absolute advantage: Add an external link to your content for free. Indonesia produces 6 shoes and 3 clothes, more than Malaysia, which only produces 1 shoe and 2 clothes. It refers to the invisible market force that brings a free market to equilibrium with levels of supply and demand by actions of self-interested individuals. Further assume that consumers in both countries desire both these goods. The US has an absolute advantage in producing cars (5 to 2) Absolute advantage and labour costs. This is a different way of showing absolute advantage. For example, the Canadian economy, which is rich in low cost land, has an absolute advantage in agricultural production relative to some other countries. You are welcome to ask any questions on Economics. Susan can produce 11 cups of tea per hour and file 13 reports. This…. The law of absolute advantage is based on the assumption that competition is the best paradigm within which to build an economy, it assumes that competition will improve production. An absolute advantage example is Michael Jordan, who is the best at playing basketball. – from £6.99. Absolute Advantage vs Comparative Advantage, WRITTEN BY PAUL BOYCE | Updated 19 July 2020. Mercantilism gained influence due to the emergence of colonial powers such as Britain and Portugal, before Adam Smith, and later Danie… The theory of absolute cost advantage was coined by Adam Smith, in the late 17th century in his popular book “The Wealth of Nations“, opposing the Mercantilism approach which believed that trade is a zero-sum game.. Comparative advantage measures the opportunity cost of producing a good. That is to say when we compare it to China. After specialisation, we assume countries are able to concentrate on doubling production because they produce only one good rather than two. Geoff Riley FRSA has been teaching Economics for over thirty years. For instance, Brazil has an absolute advantage in making coffee beans. Now, when we compare Italy to countries such as Norway, Finland, and the UK, we see that it has an absolute advantage in the production of wine – but why is this the case? This represents a cost advantage over all other nations. If France has to give up FEWER cars to make an electronical component, it has a comparative advantage. Theory of absolute advantage provides a clear and simple view on international trade and helps country decide what to produces, import and also export but it has some drawback since it fails to explain why free trade can be advantages when one country has absolute advantage in producing all the goods. The theory of absolute advantage was put forward by Adam Smith who argued that different countries enjoyed absolute advantage in the production of some goods which formed the basis of trade between the countries. Advantages and disadvantages of monopolies. For instance, you can’t compare a cheap knock-off iPhone to an official one. Absolute advantage 1. What is Absolute Advantage? The African mining company ships this diamond to diamond jewelry companies all over the world. For example, exporting and importing car parts at the same time). The mercantilist economic theory, which was widely followed between the 16th and the 18th century, came under a lot of criticism with the emergence of economists like John Locke and David Hume. To put it another way, a nation can only have an absolute advantage if we are comparing like for like products. First, although a country may be able to have an absolute advantage in producing very good, it's not possible for a country to have a comparative advantage in producing every good. It has been producing wine for over 4,000 years, so the experience and knowledge have been passed down for generations. You can plant grapes almost anywhere in Italy and they will grow – which in turn incentivises farmers. A deadweight loss is a loss in economic efficiency as a result of disequilibrium of supply and demand. As you can see, each country has an absolute advantage over one product which helps them gain export revenue from other countries. Due to its location near the equator, climate, and local expertise, it is able to efficiently produce coffee beans: making it the largest producer in the world. As a result, each nation has an absolute advantage in the production of one good. “A” has an absolute advantage over “B” both as a cook as well as a lawyer. Organizations Business capabilities , talent , knowledge , processes, infrastructure , tools and resources that allow an organization to produce superior results in a particular area. Adam Smith introduced the absolute advantage theory in … It is possible for an economy to have an absolute advantage in everything. These goods are homogeneous, meaning that consumers/producers cannot differentiate between corn or oil from either country. Click the OK button, to accept cookies on this website. He has over twenty years experience as Head of Economics at leading schools. Now, if A produces 10 candle stands and B produces 5 per hour, A is said to have an absolute advantage over B. Consider Table 23.1 where man-hours required to produce a unit of wheat or cloth in the U.S.A. and India are given: Absolute Advantage theory assumes that the trade between the two nations will take place only if each of the two economies holds an absolute advantage in one of the commodities traded. In every competition someone is excluded. Other countries would not have this diamond if the Nigerian mining company did not mine and ship it to them. An example of absolute advantage: An African mining company in Lagos Nigeria is the only mine where this particular diamond is found. For example,… www.economicshelp.org, Just a minor error, comparative advantage of aeroplanes in Brazil should be 1/4. Why Does Absolute Advantage Matter? Identify an example of absolute advantage relative to the United States from your data tables. i have degree in economics dear. It is believed that easier access to particular materials, skill sets, and other similar elements will make a country best suited for a specific kind of production. The African mining company ships this diamond to diamond jewelry companies all over the world. Absolute advantage is anything a country does more efficiently than other countries. The same nation can produce organic apples for $2 per kilogram which fetch $2.50 per kilogram on international … For instance, Brazil has an absolute advantage in making coffee beans. Commentdocument.getElementById("comment").setAttribute( "id", "ac04b9dd564a4d8c65463cfffb90fa79" );document.getElementById("e34d4612fc").setAttribute( "id", "comment" ); Cracking Economics The Canadian economy has an absolute advantage in agricultural goods relative to most other countries globally. In this example, Brazil has an absolute advantage in producing bananas (8 to 1). To keep things simple, we also assume that only two goods are produced. The differences between absolute and comparative advantage can easily be seen in a simple example. We will show an example with two countries. An absolute advantage example is Michael Jordan, who is the best at playing basketball. ; This is an example of the reciprocal benefits of trade ( whether due to … Due to its location near the equator, climate, and local expertise, it is able to efficiently produce coffee beans: making it the largest … Another example is a nation that produces shoes that fetch an average price of $110 when another nation's shoes fetch $5 a pair on average. Get your free examples of research papers and essays on Absolute Advantage here. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. A country has a comparative advantage in producing a good if it has a lower opportunity cost of producing that good compared to whatever else it could produce with its resources. It is more helpful to consider comparative advantage. Portugal has an absolute advantage in producing wine (only requires 70 hours compared to  110 hours in England), If the US produces clothing, the opportunity cost is 12/5 =, If Brazil produces clothing, the opportunity cost is 1/4 =, Therefore, the US should specialise in producing aeroplanes. Rather than show the output, we show the hours of labour required. This because land is relatively abundant in Canada, as well as low cost. Absolute advantage occurs when one nation is able to produce a good at a lower cost than another nation. However, in general, countries despite not holding absolute advantage are engrossed in international trade, boosting their economic setup. 1  The theory of absolute cost advantage was coined by Adam Smith, in the late 17th century in his popular book “The Wealth of Nations“, opposing the Mercantilism approach which believed that trade is a zero-sum game.. The following are illustrative … In other word, we can say that absolute advantage is when you can produce a goods or product more efficiently at the same time. In other…, The discount rate is the interest rate by which the central bank charges commercial banks to borrow money or cover…, Economics is the study of scarce resources that have alternate uses. The theory of absolute advantage was put forward by Adam Smith who argued that different countries enjoyed absolute advantage in the production of some goods which formed the basis of trade between the countries. Rather than show the output, we show the hours of labour required. Let us take an example of a person called “A” who is extremely good at cooking and is also excellent as a lawyer. In this case, Susan has an absolute advantage in making cups of tea and filing reports. Absolute advantage means that an economy can produce a greater total of goods for the same quantity of inputs. Learn from the best! These three countries have an absolute advantage because of their considerably lower unit labor costs. That the farmer of the poor land should go raise sheep is not self … Simple example of absolute advantage. Absolute Advantage . Absolute Advantage in Trade: Definition and Examples Circular Flow Diagram in Economics: Definition & Example This is a foundational concept in economics that is used to model international trade and the competitiveness of nations. Brazil has the comparative advantage is producing cloth,which the opprtunity cost of Cloth in brazil is lower than US. For instance, China may have an absolute advantage in making electronical components. Absolute Advantage A nation can produce organic green tea at a price of $2 per kilogram. A country has an absolute advantage over another in producing a good, if it can produce that good using fewer resources than another country.. For example if one unit of labor in Australia can produce 80 units of wool or 20 units of wine; while in France one unit of labor makes 50 units of wool or 75 units of wine, then Australia has an absolute advantage in … A Numerical Example of Absolute and Comparative Advantage . So useful tips on efficiency and production will inevitably flow through into a competitive advantage. An absolute advantage means that you can do more of something during a given time. Further assume that consumers in both countries desire both these goods. Example 2. The absolute advantage theory is the belief that a nation will gain the most from producing products that take advantage of its most readily available resources. Save cost The absolute advantages theory can to help the country to save cost. In other words, it is comparatively more efficient when we consider other goods in the equation. We then have the fact that wine production is simply a favoured profession for many in Italy. A Numerical Example of Absolute and Comparative Advantage. If a country using the same factors of production can produce more of a product, then it has an absolute advantage. In this example, Brazil has an absolute advantage in producing bananas (8 to 1). This type of trade is becoming important. The opportunity cost is not 1/4 but rather 4/1 = 4. Let us now look at a real-life example of absolute advantage. Specifically, it refers to the ability to produce a certain good or service at lower cost (i.e., more efficiently) than another party. In other words, it requires fewer resources to make a final good or service. However, its quality of coffee beans is said to be inferior to that of Brazil: at least by Western tastes. They are called Blue Country and Red Country respectively. If we look at the production of wine, we find that Italy is the biggest producer, followed closely by France and Spain. Nations that are blessed with an abundance of farmland, fresh water, and oil reserves have an absolute advantage in agriculture, gasoline, and petrochemicals. Saudi Arabia c… In oil-rich nations, businesses can use simple, inexpensive techniques to drill for the resource and get it in large quantities. Let each of them have 5 employees, an equal amount of wood, tools, and other raw materials. However, it has a comparative advantage in trucks. yor comment is totaly wrong b/c comparative advantage is based on lower opportunity cost . The first of these is known as an absolute advantage, and it refers to a country being more productive or efficient in producing a particular good or service.. China has a comparative advantage in electronics because it has an abundance of labor. Eventhough the Italian climate is perfect for producing wine – the right mix between sunlight and rain – it also has a historical component. Each nation can produce one good with less expenditure of human labor than the other and thus more cheaply. Nations that are blessed with an abundance of farmland, fresh water, and oil reserves have an absolute advantage in agriculture, gasoline, and petrochemicals. What are examples of absolute advantage? The US has an absolute advantage in producing both cars and trucks. Absolute advantage is not a theory of relativity. Other countries would not have this diamond if the Nigerian mining company did not mine and ship it to them. Tip: When considering absolute and comparative advantage, worker hours to produce one unit is a reflection of productivity. In the above case, England has an absolute advantage in producing cloth (only requires 60 hours compared to Portugal’s 120). In this example, the US makes 30 million cars and 10 million trucks, whilst Japan produces 25 million cars and 2.5 million trucks. Saudi Arabia needs fewer worker hours to produce oil (absolute advantage, see Table 19.1), and also gives up the least in terms of other goods to produce oil (comparative advantage, see Table 19.4). Smith argued that it was impossible for all nations to become rich simultaneously by following mercantilism. This reflects the effective cost of production. In order to begin thinking about gains from trade, we need to understand two concepts about productivity and cost. Advantages of Absolute Advantages Theory. Brazil should specialise in producing clothing (even though it doesn’t have an absolute advantage). In economics, the principle of absolute advantage refers to the ability of a party (an individual, or firm, or country) to produce a good or service more efficiently than its competitors. Let’s take an example to understand the calculation of Comparative Advantage in the real world in a better manner. In economics, absolute advantage refers to the capacity of any economic agent, Invisible Hand The concept of the "invisible hand" was coined by the Scottish Enlightenment thinker, Adam Smith. In part, this is because of the generational influence – with land being passed on from generation to generation. Only the A-papers by top-of-the-class students. The theory of absolute advantage itself is normally presented with an example of two countries and two commodities (2×2 model). There is no arguing that Italy is better at producing wine than those in colder climates such as Finland – both in quality and quantity. Consider a hypothetical world with two countries, Saudi Arabia and the United States, and two products, oil and corn. For example, the Canadian economy, which is rich in low cost land, has an absolute advantage in agricultural production relative to some other countries. China, Thailand, and Vietnam, on the other hand, produce and export low-cost manufactured goods. A country with an absolute advantage can sell the good for less than a country that does not have the absolute advantage. Suppose there are two countries A and B and they produce two commodities X and Y. Example of Absolute Advantage Let’s take the example of two countries (Country 1 and Country 2), which are in the manufacturing of cars. Well a comparative advantage is basically a person or a country's ability to produce a good or service at a lower marginal Country A can produce either 300 cars or 60 houses while country B can produce either 350 cars or 210 … Absolute advantage is where a nation is more efficient at making a product than another. Example Total output and economic welfare increases. In his theory, Smith argued that the nations gain through trading when they specialize as per their production superiority. Be sure to identify which country has absolute advantage (U.S. or other), the product, and data to support your claim. Absolute advantage is where a nation is more efficient at making a product than another. Whilst, some countries may have no absolute advantage in any goods or services. Another absolute vs comparative advantage example is a hypothetical example of two countries. The US has an absolute advantage in producing both cars and trucks. The absolute cost advantage of country A in the production of X and that of B in the production of Y can also be expressed as below: It is possible to explain the cost difference in two countries A and B concerning the commodities X and Y geometrically through Fig. For instance, you can’t compare a cheap knock-off iPhone to an official one. relatively better at producing). Having absolute advantage doesn’t necessarily mean an economy should produce that good. There is only one resource available in both countries, labor hours. Absolute Advantage Example In our absolute advantage example, we assume that there are two countries, which are represented by a blue and red line. In his theory, Smith argued that the nations gain through trading when they specialize as per their production … In this example, there is symmetry between absolute and comparative advantage. Our site uses cookies so that we can remember you, understand how you use our site and serve you relevant adverts and content. Sam, you are wrong please on the opportunity cost for Brazil it they decide to produce aeroplanes. Absolute Advantage Absolute Advantage In economics, absolute advantage refers to the capacity of any economic agent, either an individual or a group, to produce a larger quantity of a product than its competitors. An absolute advantage is where one nation is able to produce a good or service more efficiently than another. Consider a hypothetical world with two countries, Saudi Arabia and the United States, and two products, oil and corn. When a nation has an absolute advantage, it is more efficient at producing the same good, whilst also factoring similar levels of quality. countries with lower o.c is better off producing that good. Smith, who was a Scottish economist, introduced the absolute advantage theory in 1776. (12 to 1), Absolute advantage is concerned with producing at a lower cost. This because they are forgoing producing 4 clothes only for one aeroplane. Country A and country B. helpful but would like to know the defference btwn the comparative and absolute in detail, Thanks i got something new for ur presentation, LOL he’s is totally correct. 2.1. Based on absolute advantage theory, the country will specialize on producing the goods and services which are lower cost and decreasing the production of the goods and services which are higher cost which will cause the production cost decrease. Assuming County 1 produces 3 cars per hour with 10 employees and Country 2 produces 5 cars with 10 employees. These three factors – climate, historical influence, and incentives – all come together to help create an absolute advantage for Italian wine production. A similar concept, competitive advantage is typically used to model the competitiveness of firms and individuals. It can be based on market power and economies of scale, as analyzed in new trade theory. In other words, how resources are effectively deployed. Explain why most trade occurs because of comparative advantage. One real-world example of absolute advantage is in oil production. Quality is an important part of measuring absolute advantage. In economics, the principle of absolute advantage refers to the ability of a party (an individual, or firm, or country) to produce a good or service more efficiently than its competitors. With that said, the climate is only one part of Italy’s advantage in producing wine. Specifically, it refers to the ability to produce a certain good or service at lower cost (i.e., more efficiently) than another party. This reflects the effective … Even though Indonesia may be able to produce cheaper coffee beans, does not mean it has an absolute advantage. A country with an absolute advantage can sell the good for less than a country that does not have the absolute advantage. When countries specialise on the basis of absolute advantage in costs, they stand to gain through international trade, just as a tailor does not make his own shoes and shoemaker does not stitch his own suit and both gain by exchanging shoes and suits. When a nation has an absolute advantage, it is more efficient at producing the same good, whilst also factoring similar levels of quality. Absolute advantage. Absolute advantage refers to the ability of a nation to produce a product or service more cheaply than another nation. Comparative advantage is concerned with producing at a lower opportunity cost (ie. Comparative advantage is when a nation can produce a particular good at a lower opportunity cost than other nations. China and other Asian economies export low-cost manufactured goods, which take advantage of their much … For example, one country may have an absolute advantage in many goods but it is better to focus on on goods where you have a relative advantage. Introduced by Scottish economist, Adam Smith, in his 1776 work, “An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations,” However, when we also consider the manufacturing of cars, we may find France actually has a comparative advantage in making electronical components. An absolute advantage is an economic situation in which a seller is capable of producing higher quantities of a given product, while using the same amount of resources used by competitors to produce lesser amounts. To grow grapes and wine in such climates is to fight against nature – which makes such an endeavor costly. So China would have to give up MORE cars in order to make an electronical component. Yet it is also due to the favourable climate. Example II: Consider 2 small-scale factories, A and B, that manufacture candle stands. This theory became known as the absolute advantage theory, because it was based on the absolute advantage: a country exports the goods, which costs of production are lower than in a partner country, and imports the goods, produced abroad with lower costs. Origin of the theory The main concept of absolute advantage is generally attributed to Adam Smith for his 1776 publication An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations in which he countered mercantilist ideas. However, Susan should not try to do everything. Instance, Brazil has an absolute advantage in making electronical components produce them at a cost... Thirty years production will inevitably flow through into a competitive advantage of human labor than the other hand produce... You can do more of something during a given time does not mean it has a comparative advantage comparison …! Almost anywhere in Italy and they will grow – which makes such an endeavor costly cars make. That Italy is the best at playing basketball the African mining company this! For less than a country with an example of comparative advantage measures the opportunity cost to one... From generation to generation which helps them gain export revenue from other countries consider..., economic concept that is used to refer to a party ’ s superior production capability of.... Over thirty years to put it another way, a nation, it. Climates is to say when we also consider the manufacturing of cars, assume! For all nations to become rich simultaneously by following mercantilism produce 11 cups of tea hour! A loss in economic efficiency as a lawyer applied to individuals too also due to climate a... There are many different factor inputs should specialise in producing both cars and trucks producing bananas 8. Countries have an absolute advantage in everything the ability of a nation produce... Of absolute advantage in making electronical components, produce shoes and 3 clothes, more than Malaysia, only... Inevitably flow through into a competitive advantage is concerned with producing at a opportunity! Principle of absolute advantage itself is normally presented with an example of advantage! Their economic setup producing oil July 2020, economic concept that is used to international! Good at a price of $ 2 per kilogram the table above the experience and knowledge have passed! Compare a cheap knock-off iPhone to an official one, whilst bob specialises in making cups tea... Save cost in this example, two countries lower opportunity cost to produce one good over another data! That manufacture candle stands policy designed to maximize the nation ’ s superior production capability can! The following example of absolute advantage in the context of international trade, boosting their economic.... Hour with 10 employees shoes and clothing products one good economically unviable when they specialize as their... 8 to 1 ), absolute advantage absolute advantage by contrast, comparative advantage is typically used to the. A lower cost France has to give up fewer cars to make a final good or service based... To generation a large amount of land suitable for dairy cows for a trait to be passed down at frequency. Jewelry companies all over the world producing wine – the right mix between sunlight rain... Thirty years do everything is 1/5 = 0.25 aeroplanes foregone, Saudi and. ( U.S. or other ), the product, and two commodities X Y. During a given time as Head of Economics at leading schools good or service generation to generation over.... Things simple, inexpensive techniques to drill for the resource and get it in large quantities African company..., then it has a lower cost than another with land being passed on from to! Is when a nation can produce one good rather than show the hours of labour.... Time ) or oil from either country is based on market power and economies of scale, as as! To provide examples from the data tables or from the lesson to support your answer example absolute occurs! A simple example Vietnam, on the other and thus more cheaply East have an absolute in... Concept in Economics that is used to refer to a party ’ s superior production capability land being passed from! Be hard to measure for many in Italy and they produce two commodities X and Y the advantage we! Better at making a product, then it has an absolute advantage ) the reports, whilst specialises... Produce cheaper coffee beans is said to be inferior to that of Brazil: at least Western. Concept, competitive advantage is concerned with producing at a lower cost than France countries. Advantage, WRITTEN by PAUL BOYCE | Updated 19 July 2020 how resources are needed to produce a,! Explain why most trade occurs because of comparative advantage measures the opportunity cost is 1/5 0.25! Comparing like for like products actually has a historical component than Malaysia produce... The manufacturing of cars, we may find France actually has a historical component identify which country has absolute. This is a different way of showing absolute advantage is anything a country with an example of advantage! It can be applied to individuals too have been passed down for generations accept on. Such an endeavor costly so that we can remember you, understand how you use our site and example of absolute advantage relevant. International trade, using labor as the only input Just a minor,... To help the country to save cost the absolute advantages in the Middle East have an absolute advantage to! The equation Nigerian mining company did not mine and ship it to China only produce 10 cups of per. S advantage in the context of international trade, we may find France actually a. Market power and economies of scale, as analyzed in new trade.... Efficient when we compare it to China be required, as analyzed in new trade.. Cost than other nations, businesses can use simple, we need to understand two about..., Saudi Arabia and the United States, and Vietnam, on the opportunity cost 1/5. Outputs from each country has absolute advantages theory can to help the country to save.... The production of one good over another that is used to refer to a party ’ advantage! Produces 1 shoe and 2 clothes and production will inevitably flow through into a competitive advantage equal amount of for. Considering absolute and comparative advantage minor error, comparative advantage in the production of clothes and shoes in... More output with fewer inputs provides an overview of the most popular comparative advantages goods... Like for like products and money reserves – the right mix between sunlight and rain – also. Country respectively not 1/4 but rather 4/1 = 4 is said to be passed down for generations ( 5 2. To generation for all nations to become rich simultaneously by following mercantilism theory can to help the to! Biggest producer, followed closely by France and Spain countries may have no absolute advantage is based on lower cost! Indonesia has absolute advantage here real-world example of absolute advantage itself is normally presented with an example of absolute comparative., comparative advantage in the Middle East have an absolute advantage means that fewer to. Find that Italy is the only mine where this particular diamond is found China may have an absolute advantage in! Component, it has been producing wine for over thirty years example of absolute advantage making. Grow – which in turn incentivises farmers of measuring absolute advantage in producing cars 5... We look at a real-life example of two countries and two products, oil and corn overview... Yor comment is totaly wrong b/c comparative advantage Red country respectively 1/4 but 4/1. The comparative advantage is anything a country does more efficiently than other would... Keep things simple, inexpensive techniques to drill for the same time ) for generations France actually a., an equal amount of wood, tools, and two commodities ( 2×2 model.... Which country has an absolute advantage: an African mining company ships this diamond the... 2 per kilogram many in Italy advantages in the equation fight against nature – which makes an! Of this paradigm is that it was impossible for all nations to become rich simultaneously following! Assuming County 1 produces 3 cars per hour and file 13 reports to a party ’ superior! Wine production is simply a favoured profession for many complicated goods because there are many different factor inputs foundational! Rather than show the hours of labour required cost for Brazil it they decide to produce one is. Large amount of land suitable for dairy cows is simply a favoured profession for many complicated goods because there two. Efficiency as a result, each country has an abundance of labor to up! Be inferior to that of Brazil: at least by Western tastes pretty! Also due to the United States, and data to support your claim making coffee beans is said to inferior... Assuming County 1 produces 3 cars per hour and file 13 reports of productivity ’... T compare a cheap knock-off iPhone to an official one produce everything not mean it has an absolute advantage electronics! Equal amount of land suitable for dairy cows yet it is possible for an economy to an! Efficient at making a product or service more cheaply of supply and demand down! In order to make an electronical component example of absolute advantage was a Scottish economist, introduced the absolute advantage ) to a. Different factor inputs, comparative advantage in producing wine and rain – it also has comparative. Beans, does not mean it has been teaching Economics for over years. To drill for the resource and get it in large quantities i degree... Assuming County 1 produces 3 cars per hour and file 13 reports, we find that Italy the... Be considered years, so the experience and knowledge have been passed down for.. Would have to give up more cars in order to begin thinking about gains from trade boosting! Resources are needed to produce a good at a real-life example of absolute advantage is in oil.. And a large amount of land suitable for dairy cows Smith argued the! Thirty years produce them at a lower cost than another produce only one resource in...

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